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Guns, Germs, and Steel – holiday video project

December 24, 2011 by mrbpiel · 87 Comments · Uncategorized

Back in September, at the beginning of the 2011-12 school year, I posed a question to my Global III classes – why has the world turned out the way that it has done so far, with so few people having so much, and so many people having so little. It came from ‘Yali’s question’ in Guns, Germs, and Steel, an incredible piece from Jared Diamond. Throughout the semester, I have heard various students getting close to the answers to that one large question. I wanted to assign GGS for a book project, but I also realized that without visualizing what Diamond wrote, it might shortchange what students are able to analyze in terms of the role that guns, germs, and steel have had on human history…and also provide us with a means to change that question to a more positive conclusion for ourselves.

That said, here is the project guidelines. There are a total of 20 questions. Your task is this: to answer any 10 questions with an original idea, based on evidence shown in the video clips (include the clip # in your blog post), and to respond to an additional 10 posts by your colleagues either by agreeing or disagreeing with their posts. This does not mean one will get credit for simply saying ” I agree with so and so’s post”. I expect that someone will write, for example “Jeremy’s take on question XX is interesting and relevant, for the potential following reasons…” or “On Kathleen’s idea for xx question, I have an issue…”. The rubric will be available this week, and will be available by the Tuesday we return to class from the winter holidays.

Guns Germs and Steel I
1. According to Jared Diamond, what are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots”?
2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among the world’s most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world”, yet they have much less than modern Americans. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. Give several examples from the film to support Diamond’s theory.

Guns Germs and Steel II
1. For thousands of years, people have been cultivating crops. Describe the process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests.
2. According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. How did the domestication of animals help people? Give several examples.

Guns Germs and Steel III
How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?

Guns Germs and Steel IV
How accurate is Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.”(In other words, do you agree with Prof. Diamond) Why or why not?

Guns Germs and Steel V

Guns Germs and Steel VI
How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?

Guns Germs and Steel VII

Guns Germs and Steel VIII

Guns Germs and Steel IX
At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.

Guns Germs and Steel X
What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze?

Guns Germs and Steel XI
How did the battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors help the small army defeat the Inca army that outnumbered it by the thousands?

Guns Germs and Steel XII
According to Jared Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”?

Guns Germs and Steel XIII
According to Jared Diamond, what is the one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world?

Guns Germs and Steel XIV
Why were the Europeans who settled the South African cape so successful? Describe two reasons.
How did disease allow the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape?

Guns Germs and Steel XV
While the Europeans who were attempting to overtake/settle the tropical areas of the African continent were responsible for introducing killer germs to the native populations, they also suffered from the effects of the germs native to this part of the world. Describe how these germs worked against the European settlers.

Guns Germs and Steel XVI
How did the native Africans protected themselves from the germs that caused diseases such as Smallpox and Malaria? Give specific examples cited in the film.

Guns Germs and Steel XVII
What is the number one public health problem in Zambia, and who are the people primarily affected by this?
How has disease contributed to the poverty in many African countries such as Zambia?

Guns Germs and Steel XVIII
According to statistics from the film, how has Malaria effected the net growth in Africa over the last 50 years?
Describe how other tropical countries such as Malaysia and Singapore have developed rich economies despite having many of the same geographical and health problems faced by African nations.

87 Comments so far ↓

  • Mahy Elaskandrany

    1. According to Jared Diamond, what are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have not’s”? CLIP 1
    According to Jared Diamond, as stated in the first video (Part 1 of 18), three major elements that separate the world’s ‘haves’ from have not’s’ are basically guns, germs, and steel. He states that questions asked based on guns, germs, and steel are the biggest, most fascinating questions of human history.
    2. For thousands of years, people have been cultivating crops. Describe the process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests. CLIP 2
    In order to feed bigger populations and live longer lives, people had to find different techniques that would guarantee them a larger supply of food that had enough essential nutrients for life, and would last longer without spoiling. In the second video, Diamond gets a change to see a real group of hunter-gatherers collecting and hunting their food. He sees that although gathering is harder work and food collected from it doesn’t last long, it is more preferred by people just because it can feed a greater amount of people, and it is guaranteed. Whereas hunting takes a lot of education on hundreds of different animals, and isn’t always successful.
    3. According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. How did the domestication of animals help people? Give several examples. CLIP 3
    Raising animals was a great advantage because it was another form of guaranteed survival. The more livestock one had meant the more food, or resources they could obtain, usually leading to a longer survival. The domestication of animals helped people survive because it provided them with food, clothing, weapons, utensils; which didn’t only aid them in survival, but in trade as well, usually determining one’s power and wealth.
    4. How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization? CLIP 4
    Being such a dry, unstable environment, as people began to domesticate and harvest their own crops, the land began to become dry, and eventually, it could no longer support the people living their because it wouldn’t grow out much crops. As a result, people had to move on to places close to the Red Sea (or water in particular) and begin to harvest again. Diamond’s idea of geography played a role in the success of civilizations because movement of people to different places was what kept them alive.
    5. At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry. CLIP 6
    The production of steel was the most important for of weapons the conquistadors made. Steel was made in to swords that were strong, long, and sharp used for stabbing and slashing the enemy. One steel sword could kill dozens of people in a short amount of time. It took conquistadors centuries of trial and error to get the ideal sword. Also horses helped them move faster, seem bigger because they were very high on the horse, and in control. Along with steel swords, conquistadors were armed, and used gun powder.
    6. What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze? CLIP 9
    People started working with metal in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago, and having Europe significantly close to the Fertile Crescent, Europeans inherited this metal technology. They took this metal technology to a new level once soldiers demanded longer, stronger, sharper swords.
    7. How did the battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors help the small army defeat the Inca army that outnumbered it by the thousands? CLIP 10
    Spaniards rode on their horsebacks, used steel swords to kill the Incas, and shot them. Not knowing about their advanced way of fighting, the Incas were left very vulnerable to the Spaniards, even though they had superior numbers of soldiers.
    8. According to Jared Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”?
    Coming to American in desperate search of gold, the Spanish were the first people to acquire guns, germs, and steel. CLIP 11
    9. According to Jared Diamond, what is the one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world? CLIP 12
    Geography gave Europeans the most productive crops and animals on the planet, allowing them to develop guns, germs, and steel, three great forces of conquest allowing them to shape history.
    10. Why were the Europeans who settled the South African cape so successful? Describe two reasons. CLIP 13
    Temperature & climate are two factors that allowed the Europeans to be so successful in South Africa. Having almost the same distance from the equator as South Africa, the Europeans could easily adapt to the environment, because it was just the same as the one in Europe. Having that said, they knew what type of crops they could grow, and what type of animals they could domesticate, therefore leading to their success.

  • Dorian Carter

    In part 1, Jared believes there are three elements that make people advantageous and anyone who lacks thereof are considered “have nots”. These three things are guns, germs and steel. He uses the Spanish conquerors,or conquistadors, as an example. There use of these three elements enhanced their power and control over the natives.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    Part 6, Question X, The Spanish conquistadors had better steel weaponry than the bronze weaponry of the Incas because of the spread of new ideas, inventions and innovations in which was easier on the Eurasian Continent than the Americas due the the Geography and direction of the spread. On the Eurasian continent, the spread was horizontal, through climates and geography which was the same all throughout the travel whereas in the Americas, it was vertical, through different climates in different areas, making ideas hard to spread and so new, better weapons not to be made as well as the society itself remain basic and simple, without advancements.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 10 &11, Question XIV, 1st) The Europeans who settled in the South African Cape were so successful because, first, the land there was fertile as well as the climate good enough for farming, and second, due to that farming, new crops were available that weren’t available before in Europe, so that change in diet helped them to prosper. With that, those new items were put in trade for the European continent and so their demand increased, because they were new and more people wanted them. So wealth and economy also boomed.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 11, Question XIV, 2nd) The Incas and other civilizations had already been infected by diseases and germs foreign to their area from Europe. Since they were foriegn, No adaptations had been developed to them and so they caused widespread deaths and spread across the land without halting.Due to that, the already weakened armies and civilizations were easy to defeat and weren’t that much of a problem to the Europeans, so they conqured the civilizations easily. The Europeans weren’t infected by the diseases because since it came from their land, they had already developed adaptations to the diseases.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 16 & 17, Question XVI) The native Americans protected themselves from those diseases by developing vaccines because to those diseases they had already been exposed to. The diseases also might have originated in Africa, so over the years, the Africans developed adaptations such as antibodies to those diseases. For further protection, they lived and settled on high and dry areas where mosquitoes didn’t dwell. Along ith that, they stayed in small, seperate groups that covered a great area so if a group did get the disease, it wouldn’t spread.

  • Mayra Valencia

    According to Jared Diamond in clip #1 the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots” are guns, germs, and steel. A great example of this is looking at the people from New Guinea, where we can see how these three elements have marked the difference in their daily lifestyle.

  • Mayra Valencia

    In clip#2 there were several methods of process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests. Jared Diamond was able to witness these methods. Instead of only using the technique of hunting, gathering proved to be a more efficient method of providing food. Hunting required a lot of skillful work and it didn’t ensure the supply of food for a long period of time. On the other hand, gathering did require even more labor but it was the only way of ensuring a longer supply of food without it going bad so quickly.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#3-The movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent proved Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization because it showed that once the climate and geography of a certain place weren’t in the right conditions for crop growth, people had to begin to move to places where the geography would favor them in crop growth (farming). For example, places near rivers would favor the civilizations the most because it would enhance farming and lead to the growth of civilizations.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#9- The weaponry that the Spanish conquistadors had at the time that they invaded the Inca Empire were mainly weapons that were made out of steel. An example, of the weapons they used was the sword. They were very long, strong, and they were able to also bend and spring back into shape which helped them greatly during their conquests.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#10-Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze is because of geography. The Eurasian continent could spread ideas and technology much easier because their lands run horizontal from each other. Meanwhile in the Americas, the lands run from North to South making it far more difficult to spread new ideas, technology, and even new writing forms created among themselves.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#11- The battle tactics used by the small Spanish conquistador army helped defeat the large Inca army because the Spanish army was far more in advantage with their weaponry and charged into the Inca army and used their horses and swords in advantage to kill almost all of the vulnerable Inca army.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#12- According to Jared Europeans were “accidental conquerors” because they were the first to acquire guns, germs, and steel. Meaning they wiped out a vast majority of lands they conquered through spreading their diseases and they had their advanced weaponry to even further help them conquest lands.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#13- The one factor that allowed Europeans to develop forces to conquer vast majorities of the world was their geography. Their geography was set perfectly and always served them for the better. Because of their geography they were able to spread ideas and technology quicker, they were able to cultivate plants and domesticate animals. Their geography has always helped the Europeans thrive quicker than other parts of the world.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#16 (1st question) The Europeans who settled in the South African cape were so successful because of the development of the gun which was used to protect themselves and because of steel.

  • Mayra Valencia

    Clip#16 (2nd question) Disease allowed the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape because the Europeans had already grown an immunity to those specific diseases since they had grown up around them. Instead the Americans and Africans had not been exposed to those type of diseases before which meant they had no immunity to it , therefore large populations were wiped out by the killer diseases leaving them vulnerable to European conquest.

  • Nana Nyantakyi

    1. According to Jared Diamond the three elements that separate the worlds “haves” from the “have nots” are germs, guns, and steel. Modern history has been shaped by conquest and those who have been successful had access germs, guns and steel. (CLIP 1/18)

    2. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. When Yali, a New Guinean posed the question of why white men have so much cargo and New Guineans like him have so little, Diamond was thrown off balance on how to answer it. Cargo was regarded by many as the white man’s power. Western colonials believed power was determined by race. They felt they were superior to the native population and that it was natural for them to have so much cargo and the New Guineans so little. Diamond makes the argument that race is an absurd explanation, because he knew too many smart New Guineans that possessed skillful methods. They could survive in some of the most difficult environments on earth empty handed and still survive. Essentially, it had much to do with one’s geographic surroundings, and what that group was exposed to. (CLIP 1/18)

    1. Hunter gatherers traveled in small mobile groups. They made shelters where they could find animals to hunt or plants to gather. They lived in shelters for weeks or months at a time as long as they had food for themselves. Once the season changed and animals migrated, they moved on to the next valley looking for new sources of food. In parts of New Guinea, wild sago is an important food source. Women would strip the sago trees to get to the pulp in the center, which was then turned into dough and cooked. (CLIP 2/18)

    2. According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. The domestication of animals helps people to prosper and survive. It provided a dependable meat supply, milk which provided an ongoing source of protein. The animal’s hair and skin was used to make clothes for extra warmth as well. (CLIP 2/18, 4/18)

    1. The movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further supports Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization because it determined the resources that would be available to that specific civilization. In addition, it affected the nature of the crops, which were a very important aspect of civilization. Geographic advantages lead to successful civilizations. (CLIP 3/18)

    1. At the time that the Spanish conquistadors invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with swords. They used long, strong, sharp swords. It was convenient during times of battle because it enabled them to stab, slash, and kill dozens of people within a short time period. It had a good pliability, which allowed it to bend and swing back to shape. (CLIP 9/18)

    1. Jared Diamond makes the argument that the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while the Incas were still making tools and weapons from bronze. The reason for this was because libraries contained books in which generals wrote their accounts on what they did to other generals, exposing their “dirty tricks”. Pissarro gained knowledge on what to do to the Incas. The Incas did not have writing advances and because of this, they only had local knowledge. They were unsophisticated and naïve compared to the Spaniards. The Spaniards enjoyed the benefits of technology and ideas that easily spread across Eurasia. (CLIP 10/18)

    1. The Spanish conquistadors’ battle tactics helped them defeat the Inca army because they performed surprise attacks on their rivals. They hid themselves from the Inca army and attacked while the Incas were completely unprepared. The Incas had never seen Spanish horses before and these horses allowed the Spaniards to make vicious attacks that the Incas were not expecting. (CLIP 11/18)

    1. Europeans were “accidental conquerors” in history because their geographic location in history made them the first people to acquire guns, germs, and steal. European powers had colonized Africa Australia, and much of Asia. (CLIP 12/18)

    1. According to Jared Diamond, there is one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world. He believed that germs were the most invisible and even more devastating agent of conquest, a great force in human history. Domesticated animals gave Europeans one advantage of which they were unaware of. They lived in close proximity to their livestock so they became infected with viruses and germs of those animals which evolved into diseases of humans. Europeans developed resistance to those diseases, through exposure over centuries. As they spread around the world, other peoples did not have the same resistance so they became victims of devastating outbreaks of infection. Millions died especially from smallpox. (CLIP 13/18)

  • Dorian Carter

    In part 1, Jared addresses a major geographical component that put the culturally diverse and adaptable New Guineans at a disadvantage. As a result of geographical isolation the New Guineans were unable to maintain an anything but primitive perception of the world.

  • Dorian Carter

    In part 2 (1) Jared shows the viewers that in order to cultivate crops and achieve an adequate food supply, hunter gatherers ( as demonstrated by the New Guineans) have to thouroughly search for food and move around when food became scarce. (2) The domestication of animals served as an alternative to consuming plants when it became
    limited. It also was convenient and played a vital role in the change from a nomadic life style to a domestic lifestyle.

  • Dorian Carter

    As a result of the increased inability to maintain a mobile lifestyle, people began to grow their own crops (i.e, Fertile Crescent region). Geography began to play more of a role when people became reliant on areas near waterways. Where populations started to become more dense, advanced cities were created.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 9, Question IX) The Spanish weaponry was more advanced in which they were made of steel while the Incan weapons were made of bronze. Steel is a better metal to make weapons with than bronze because it has more durability as well as power. The Spanish swords were made of steel, so they had more durability and on top of that, they were extremely sharp blades welded by extremely great welders, giving them extra cutting abiity. They had also learned how to use gun powder, an element which had not yet been learned in the Americas. With that, the Spanish could make strong longrange weapons, such as guns and cannons, whereas, all the Incas had were bows and arrows as long range weapons. Another weapon which was greatly superior were the Spanish horses, where, as an example, the Inca had never seen before and caused their downfall. Those horses ween’t normal hoses either, they were Spanish horses, so they were a lot more powerful and fierce.

  • Dorian Carter

    (Part4) I agree with Jared Diamond when he says the wealth and strength of a civilization is based on the hands they’ve been dealt. Natural resources, even in modern societies, is essential to the economic strength and the respect of a nation because these resources help build relationships amongst other nations(i.e., oil)

  • Dorian Carter

    (Part 9) The Spanish approached the Incas with steel swords, while the primitive Incas were using bronze weapons

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 11, Question XII) The Europeans became accidental conquerers through the conquering of the Civilization of South America; The Incas. Before the conquerers even entered their land, the Incas had been infected by a disease that caused widespread deaths and greatly decreased the Incan population. Due to that decrease, all the Europeans did was come in an invade, which caused the already weakened Incan Empire to fall and their land to be conquered, making the Europeans accidental conquerers.

  • Dorian Carter

    (Part 14) The Europeans were so successful in settling into South Africa because the invention of guns, which were foreign to the Cape natives. They were also successul because their adaptability. (2) Germs facilitated in the success of the European’s conquests by annihilating mass populations as a result of lack of immunity.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 10, 11, &12, Question XI) The Battle tactics used by the Spanish included the element of surprise, which played a great role in their conquest. In their conquest, they first hid from their target, waiting for the right moment to strike, and when that moment came, they struck and that proved extremely effective and wiped out their prey. Their advanced weaponry and horses as well as the disease weary enemiies also helped this effiency to increase and make the conquest a lot easier.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (5th Sentence, 7th Word) Replace “and” – as well as
    (6th Sentence) *Enemies

  • Dorian Carter

    (Part 17) Malaria is the number one killer in African, specifically Zambian, children under five years old. (2)This disease has affected the population and resources, which affects the economy.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 6, Question VI) The movement of the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent supports Jared Damond’s idea of geography by how much easier was it for the civilizations to move from West to East or vice versa. Diamond said it was easier to move in the Eastern Hemisphere than the Western Hemishere due to the direction of movement and the similarities of geography of whole continents. So, since the geography was similar all throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, there was more movement of civilizations there while in the Western Hemisphere, different geographical features existed throughout the continent, which made it so that the civilizations there didn’t move much.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 14 & 15, Question XV) Those germs, as they had affected the Inca and caused heir downfall, the African germs also caused the downfall of the Europeans in Africa. The Africans knew how to deal with their native germs because they had adapted to them, but to the Europeans, they were new, and so they didn’t know what to do. Their populations of the settlements in Africa dropped, and for the time being, the Africans were victorious.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 16, Qustion XVII (1st) Over the last 50 years, Malaria has caused a 1% in the African population every year. Over the yaers, the antibodies protecting the Africans against malaria have become ineffective and the medicines have also been decreasing in efficiency due to malaria mutating. With these mutations, malaria once again, became a widespread killer of Africans, most of them being children and because of that, Africa has been seeing a decrease in its net population. Cities have further benefitted malaria due to its high density.

  • Ahmed Mirza

    (Part 16, Question XVIII) (2nd) According to Jared Diamond, Malaysia and Singapore have developed rich economies despite have the same problems as the Africans because they had a better understanding of their geography and environment, enabling them to deal with that problem. With hard work and determination, they erased those problems and were able to develope those cities and economies. Understanding the environment is important to being able to deal with the problems it throws out as the people of Malaysia and Singapore did.

  • Kamrun Kanika

    Guns Germs Steel I
    1. Jared Diamond states that the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots” are guns, germs and steel.
    2. Jared Diamond’s says that the reason behind why the people of New Guinea have much less than modern America is because of geographic luck. For example, in the Middle East the amount of resources the people have is large compared to what the people of New Guinea have. More food resources allow people to become less relying on becoming a hunter-gatherer.
    Guns Germs and Steel II
    1.People have been cultivating crops in order to feed a large population. They needed to find different ways of receiving food because hunting only would not help them gain food. At a firsthand account, Jared Diamond tries out hunting. Traditional societies have mostly relied on gathering since hunting was so tough. Diamond says that gathering is a more productive way of finding food than hunting even though it is physically harder.
    2.The domestication of animals helped people because it provided them with food. They bred animals so they could be able to eat meat. Also, the skin of the animals could provide them with clothing. They could also use the animals for means of transportation or warfare.
    Gun Germs and Steel III
    1. Movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent further supported Diamond’s idea that geography plays a key role in the success of a civilization because the area was dry and it was tough because people weren’t able to receive food. The area was dry so they were able to store food in particular places. They were able to store wheat and grains for years due to the climate of the Middle East. During the drought, people were growing their food and planted their own crops.
    Guns Germs and Steel IV
    1. I agree with Professor Diamond because a civilization’s ability to gain power, wealth, and strength should be relied on all the raw materials provided to them. Wealth and power should be determined on whether they feed the civilians, how they get materials and how they survive in their civilization. New Guineans didn’t develop in the same way Europeans did because they didn’t have the same raw materials.
    Gun Germs and Steel IX
    1.The Spanish conquistadors were armed with state of the art weaponry. They used horses as a way of transportation. By riding the horses, they seemed like gods that were part human and part beast. Also, gunpowder was used on guns.
    Guns Germs and Steel X
    1. People started working with metals in the Fertile Crescent 7,000 years ago. Since Europe was geographically closer to it, Europeans inherited this metal technology. They also demanded for stronger and sharper weapons.
    Guns Germs and Steel XI
    1. The Spaniards surprised the Incas; they fired their guns and came out of hiding on horses. Then, the Spaniards used their swords to stab the Incas who were panicking and trying to leave rather than standing still.
    Guns Germs and Steel XII
    1. The Europeans were “accidental conquerors” because the Europeans were the first to have guns, germs and steel and so they could conquer other civilizations.
    Guns Germs and Steel XIII
    1. One factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world is geography.
    Guns Germs and Steel XIV
    1. Europeans were so successful in South Africa because the climate and temperature was close to what the Europeans were used to. Europeans are also able to grow the same type of crops as Cape because they have a similar latitude.
    2. The disease allowed the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape because the Incas and other civilizations had already been infected by diseases and germs. The diseases caused the many deaths and so it was easier to conquer the civilizations. Since the disease came from their land, the Europeans weren’t infected by the disease.

  • sukhjinder cheema

    1) Guns, germs, and steel separated the haves from the have not.
    2) One reason was the lack of resources in the jungle, which led to little food. The food was low in protein and could not give all the nutrition that people needed to survive. Also, they could not store food and they relied on hunting and gathering to support them. This process is not vary nutritious and could not produce enough food to feed a big population. However, the people of other countries had more resources, and were able to farm and store their food. Their crops were better than the ones on New Guinea because they lasted longer and had more nutrition. This gave them the ability to have a large population.
    3) When people domesticate plants, they plant seeds and when the seeds sprout, they choose the seeds of the greatest and tastiest crops to replant. This will led to a better harvest. They also analysis the crops that are the easiest and most productive to grow, and were able to make more profit.
    4) Animals provided people with many resources. Such as, meat and milk for food, skin for clothes, and a method of transportation for trade and war. They also provided a good source of fertilizer for the farm.
    5) The Fertile Crescent was a great place for farming and building a society. However, the great land could not continue to support them. So eventually they had to leave the crescent to find a better place to farm.
    6) I agree with Diamond because a society should rely on what they are given. With their resource they can be able to trade and gain wealth, or farm for food. They should control and use their resource as much as they can before it is gone. If they count of other people there is always a chance of betrayal, and then their society will fall apart.
    7) The Spanish had steel weapons and guns. The steel was stronger than the Incan bronze weapons, and guns were a highly advanced weapon at the time that the Incan army had never seen and had no defense for. This gave the Spanish a great advantage.
    8) The geography of the Spanish was better for trade of information and ideas which led to the advancement of weapons and creation of steel swords. In contrast, the Incas were isolated by their geography, and were not able to communicate and advance.
    9) The Spanish used a surprise attack on the Incas. They also used their horses and steel swords to easily kill the fleeing Incas.
    10) The Spanish were accidental conqueror because if it wasn’t for their guns, germs, and steel weapons they won’t have won any battle. They were lucky that other societies were not as advanced as them.
    11) The Europeans had the advantage of geography that helped them advance in agriculture and weaponry. Such as, steel swords, guns, productive crops, and domestic animals. This helped them conquer most of the world.
    12) The Europeans were able to cape to life in Africa because Africa had about the same temperature of Europe. So the Europeans can grow and eat the same crops they did in Europe.
    13) The Europeans introduced new diseases to the native, which caused many of the natives to die. However, since the Europeans have been exposed to these diseases for centuries they are immune to them. So conquest was easier with fewer enemies.
    14) The native diseases of Africa caused many Europeans to become sick and lose their lives. It also affected and killed their livestock.
    15) Native Africans were able to developed vaccines for small pox, after year of exposure to the disease. They also learned that malaria was spread by mosquitos. So they lived in high and dry areas, and in small groups to get less of a risk to catch the disease.
    16) The number one public health problem in Zambia is malaria. It mostly affects children under five.
    17) The disease shortened the life span of most people in Zambia to about 35. It also causes a lot of mothers to care for their sick children in the hospital. Also, because of these two factors people were not able to work as much and provide for their families.
    18) The disease has a one percent negative growth on Africa every year, in the last 50 years.
    19) They realized the weaknesses of their environment and worked on ways to improve it. Then they were able to get rid of the disease, and prosper.

  • Tashana Victor

    Part I(#1) Military power,lethal microbes and advanced technology, basically guns,germs,and steel, are the elements separating the world.

    Part II(#1) People traveled in small groups, and made shelters where animals and crops were plentiful.When the animals moved, so did the hunter gatherers.For example in New Guinea, women cut down wild sago trees to get the sago in the center and cook it to make dough.

    (#2)The domestication of animals helped people because they provided a steady supply of meat and milk making for a good source of protein.The animals provided fur to keep the people warm and clothed which could show wealth.

    Part IV Geography played a key role in the success because only certain countries were fortunate to have domesticated animals.The people of the Fertile Crescent had the best crops and animals.Those without domesticated animals were not as successful and still had to hunt and gather.More food meant population growth,leading to time for technological advancement.New Guinea agriculture was not productive enough to lead to these connections.

    Part IX Europeans acquired swords from the Fertile Crescent and developed them into longer and deadly weapons.People wore the swords with their everyday clothes to show they are gentlemen,upwardly mobile and they claim ancestry from the knights of the Middle Ages.The swords allowed them to slash,stab and kill within an short period.

    Part X The Spanish had advanced to steel weapons because the people of Eurasia, having the same latitude share similar vegetation, climate and day length.This allowed for easy communication and spread of crops,animals and technology.The Americas had the same longitude, meaning the difference in vegetation, day length and climate stopped the spread of ideas.The advancement of the Spanish was based on geography.

    Part XI The Spanish used a surprise attack to ambush the unarmed Inca army with their horses,strong swords and guns.Even with their strong numbers, the Incas did not stand their ground,instead fleeing,making themselves easy prey.

    Part XII The Europeans were “accidental conquerors” because based on their geographical location,Europeans were the first to acquire guns, germs and steel.

    Part XIII One factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world was their germs. Domesticated animals gave the Europeans this unknown power.

    Part XIV(#1) The Europeans in the South African Cape were successful because of their weapons and germs.They had guns which were superior to the weapons of the other Cape people.The European germs weakened those without immunity.Both factors allowed other Cape inhabitants to be easily conquered.

  • Nana Nyantakyi

    I support Mahy’s take on question 1 from Clip 1 regarding the major elements that create a separation within the world. I would also add that it is clear that guns, germs and steel granted an advantage to those who had access to it. If such valuable items weren’t available, then there is a chance that there wouldn’t be much of a separation and that those who prospered from these elements would be at a lower level of accomplishment.

    Mahy’s response to question 3 from Clip 3 is a relevant response. The domestication of animals not only helped people, it served as a great advantage and form of survival. Domesticating animals paved the way for food supply, clothing from fur, weapons and utensils, as she stated, and also milk.

    I support Ahmed’s explanation to question 1 from Clip 10 for why the Spanish conquistadors had better steel weaponry than the Incas who still used bronze. The Incas were not exposed to the new ideas and technological benefits because they did not experience what went on across Eurasia. The Spanish conquistadors on the other hand were lucky enough to have access to these elements due to the knowledge it provided them with.

  • Mehedi Mondal

    Clip 1.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots”?
    • Three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” and “have nots” is the power of individual militaries, lethal diseases, and advanced technologies in various fields . (Guns, Germs and Steel)

    Clip 2
    1. For thousands of years, people have been cultivating crops. Describe the process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests.
    • Hunting was only one source of nourishment. Since populations kept rapidly increasing, they needed different ways of gathering food. Hunting is significantly harder than gathering crops, so people naturally went for the easier route, which was gathering plant life for harvests.

    2.According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. How did the domestication of animals help people? Give several examples.
    • Hunting and domesticating animals have helped populations grow since it is a source of food. As well as it being food, they could use it for other various activities. Camels to travel and cows for milk, sleep for their fur. One animal could help a whole town during this day and age.

    Clip 3
    1. How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?
    • Geography always played a key role in the success of a civilization. You want people to move to where you can get food for your population and preserve that food so you wont be in short supply. The middle east is a very dry region, but preserving crops is ideal in that location.

    Clip 4
    1. How accurate is Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.”(In other words, do you agree with Prof. Diamond) Why or why not?
    •I agree with Diamond because when a civilization wants to gain power and wealth it all depends on the infrastructure provided to them. Wealth depends on if they can provide for their citizens. Europeans and New Guineans didn’t have the same materials provided to them.

    Clip 9.
    1. At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.
    • Horses and Guns were “state of the art” weaponry. Horses can make them faster, but also looked like half man, half beast. Guns helped eliminate targets quicker and with more efficiency.

    Clip 10.
    1.What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze?
    • Europe was closer to steel than any other civilization. Through trade, Europe manufactured this technology to their advantage.

    Clip 11.
    1. How did the battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors help the small army defeat the Inca army that outnumbered it by the thousands?
    • Advanced weaponry. Killed Inca’s by using Guns and the ones who were spared were stabbed by swords.

    Clip 12.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”?
    • They had “Guns,Germs, and Steel”.

    Clip 13.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what is the one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world?
    • Geography helped Europeans conquer land.

    Clip 14.
    1. Why were the Europeans who settled the South African cape so successful? Describe two reasons
    •Climate was similar to Europe’s, so they adhered quickly to the land. They also grew the same crops due to their location.

    2. How did disease allow the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape?
    •Europeans had antibodies against the diseases, so they were immune, but Americans were not, which eliminated thousands of people.

  • Mayra Valencia

    1)I agree with Mahy’s take on question #3 on Clip#3. Livestock helped shape our world as it is today in the aspects of it proving trade,fur,food, as mentioned, and it also came to to the building of larger civilizations itself.

    2)Kamrun’s point of view in question XI is relevant because the Incas should have stayed still that way the Spaniards wouldn’t have been able to murder most of them. Unfortunately the Spaniards used their fear in their advantage and conquered the Incas.

    3)I also agree with Kamrun’s response in question XII. The Europeans were indeed able to obtain guns,germs, and steel as an accidental advantage in their conquering. The germs helped wipe out civilizations while conquering them, and their advancements in weaponry definitely enhanced their power.

    4)I support Ahmed’s idea on part 11, question XIV, 2nd. his statement is accurate because the Europeans had already built up an immunity to such diseases, therefore when they attacked other nations who weren’t immune to them, the nations wold be vulnerable to their attacks.

    5)I also agree on Dorian’s take on part 14 with the two factors that helped Europe succeed in South Africa. She mentioned that their invention of guns and their adaptability helped them succeed. The invention of guns gave them a great advantage over any enemies that would want to battle them, and their ability to adjust to their climate also helped them advance greatly.

    6) I definitely agree with Tashana on question X. The Europeans had advanced weaponry because they were able to transfer ideas much easier than the Americas. The Eurasian continent runs horizontally making it much easier to communicate, meanwhile in the Americas it’s from North to South meaning there’s change in temperatures and time making it far more difficult to exchange ideas for new technology.

    7) Mahy makes a relevant statement on question 2 based on clip#2 because in the video we were able to see that gathering proved to be much more effective and reliable than hunting, as stated. Hunting would provide food for a shorter amount of time while gathering provided for much longer.

    8) I agree with Nana’s opinion on clip#3 where she states that the movement around the Fertile crescent indeed proved the idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization. She stated that geographic advantages led to successful civilizations, which is relevant because when the geography of a place is set good, with great soil, natural resources, and water, a civilization could bloom out of it and it could rise into a even bigger one.

    9)I support Sukhjinder’s statement in question#1 where he states that guns, germs, and steel have separated the “haves from the have nots” because weaponry has changed many societies and has helped it advance in many ways. Meanwhile some countries aren’t able to obtain it which is the reason why they don’t advance as much.

    10) Nana also makes a valid statement on clip#9 where she states that the Spaniards used swords. These swords help the Spaniards conquer because they were long, flexible and were easy to carry around. They worked fast and efficiently.

  • Jintao Chen

    [Part1](1)According to Jared Diamond, the three major elements are guns, germs, and steels, which are lethal microbes and advanced technology.
    (2)The New Guineans were not foolish or inferior as the Europeans genetically, but they were still very poor compared to the Europeans. They had much less cargoes.
    [Part 2](1)They will grow crops and they will store food using a simple structure and protect the food from insects and moisture.
    (2)Hunting and domestication of animals made people have more food sources, and that can lead to food surpluses and people eventually have more time to do other things,thus develop skills.
    [Part 3]The geography of the Fertile Crescent help the people. People settled down next water because of the drought, and they start to grow crops, which help them to avoid being killed by nature easily.
    [Part 4]I agree with Diamond, no one is reallly a lot more stupid than anyone else relatively. They just have less resources around them that enable them to develop advanced technology, and New Guinean cannot grow food that have enough proteins and nutritions. That made them mind more about keep living.
    [Part 6]When people don’t spend too much time find their food, they can develop more things. There are weakness in the Fertile Crescent, the climate is too dry. They explore to other places when they are enable to farm any more.
    [Part 9]They use steel to make more advanced swords and they are able to explore further more on the metal industry of make swords during their centuries of history. Many experimentations had to be taken in order to produce more flexible and efficient working swords.
    [Part 10]Incans were still using bronze when the Europeans have already able to use steel because they spent too much time on worrying about basic things. Their geography disabled them to care less about their food sources.

  • Mehedi Mondal

    Clip 1.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots”?
    Three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” and “have nots” is the power of individual militaries, lethal diseases, and advanced technologies in various fields . (Guns, Germs and Steel)

    Clip 2
    1. For thousands of years, people have been cultivating crops. Describe the process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests.
    Hunting was only one source of nourishment. Since populations kept rapidly increasing, they needed different ways of gathering food. Hunting is significantly harder than gathering crops, so people naturally went for the easier route, which was gathering plant life for harvests.

    2.According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. How did the domestication of animals help people? Give several examples.
    Hunting and domesticating animals have helped populations grow since it is a source of food. As well as it being food, they could use it for other various activities. Camels to travel and cows for milk, sleep for their fur. One animal could help a whole town during this day and age.

    Clip 3
    1. How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?
    Geography always played a key role in the success of a civilization. You want people to move to where you can get food for your population and preserve that food so you wont be in short supply. The middle east is a very dry region, but preserving crops is ideal in that location.

    Clip 4
    1. How accurate is Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.”(In other words, do you agree with Prof. Diamond) Why or why not?
    I agree with Diamond because when a civilization wants to gain power and wealth it all depends on the infrastructure provided to them. Wealth depends on if they can provide for their citizens. Europeans and New Guineans didn’t have the same materials provided to them.

    Clip 9.
    1. At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.
    Horses and Guns were “state of the art” weaponry. Horses can make them faster, but also looked like half man, half beast. Guns helped eliminate targets quicker and with more efficiency.

    Clip 10.
    1.What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze?
    Europe was closer to steel than any other civilization. Through trade, Europe manufactured this technology to their advantage.

    Clip 11.
    1. How did the battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors help the small army defeat the Inca army that outnumbered it by the thousands?
    Advanced weaponry. Killed Inca’s by using Guns and the ones who were spared were stabbed by swords.

    Clip 12.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”?
    They had “Guns,Germs, and Steel”.

    Clip 13.
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what is the one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world?
    Geography helped Europeans conquer land.

    Clip 14.
    1. Why were the Europeans who settled the South African cape so successful? Describe two reasons
    Climate was similar to Europe’s, so they adhered quickly to the land. They also grew the same crops due to their location.

    2. How did disease allow the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape?
    Europeans had antibodies against the diseases, so they were immune, but Americans were not, which eliminated thousands of people.

  • Nana Nyantakyi

    Ahmed’s take on question 1 from clip 11 is very understandable. The Spanish conquistadors wanted to catch the Incas off guard, and the only way to do that was to attack when the Incas were least expecting it. As shown through the video, it worked. They kept themselves out of sight as he pointed out, and when they heard the signal to charge, they made their attack, leaving the Incas with no option but to flee.

    I like Dorian’s take on question 1 from clip 4. When Diamond speaks about the wealth and strength of a civilization having to do with the hands they’ve been dealt, he has a point. There are essential items that civilizations must accumulate to be prosperous. For those that have access to certain resources, they have higher chances of being wealthier and stronger as a civilization. Dorian makes a great argument of how oil comes into play. It is a very significant aspect among many and those who do have it are more advantageous.

    Myra makes a very interesting argument for question 1 from clip 3 that supports Diamonds idea on the role geography plays in a civilization. She explains how aspects like climate can affect whether a civilization grows. Crops are one of the most important necessities to survive, and if a specific region is not exposed to rivers or any other water sources, it is difficult to grow crops and therefore difficult to succeed as a civilization. All of these elements connect back to geography, and I think she really emphasized that Diamonds idea is true.

    Myra also responded to question 1 from clip 12 and I agree with her statement that it was because of guns, germs, and steel that Europeans were considered “accidental conquerors”. Having access to those elements gave them very little to worry about. They easily took out rivals, and spread their diseases amongst other lands which weakened that regions nation, and made it easier to be taken over, and were a step ahead with weaponry. This is how Europe is able to colonize Africa, much of Asia, and Australia.

    Dorian speaks on the process used to domesticate crops. (Question 1 from clip 2) I think she has a point on how hunter gatherers had to search for food and travel to various places just to obtain it. I also think she could have included an example in reference to the New Guineans and what they had to go through just to gain more specifics. For example, the mentioning of how the women of New Guinea handled sago trees would have been an additional supportive statement.

    I like the idea behind Dorian’s response to question 2 from clip 2. She discussed how livestock changed the food supply available and it provided a new option away from the nomadic lifestyle. Her reasoning is stated well, however also mentioning the different things that came as a result of domestication. Specifically speaking, things like meat supply, milk, and clothing, which all helped civilizations continue to live and grow.

    Ahmed uses great detail in discussing question 1 from clip 9 about the steel swords that the conquistadors were armed with while invading the Incan empire. He really explains how and why the Spanish were at such an advantage, considering how bronze is of no match when it comes to steel. In addition, we see that the horses used by the Spanish, provided them another weapon against the Incas, especially since Spanish horses were “a lot more powerful and fierce”.

  • Christian Jimenez

    Guns Germs and Steel I
    1. According to Jared Diamond, what are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots”?
    According to Jared Diamond what separated the world were guns, germs, and steel.
    2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among the world’s most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world”, yet they have much less than modern Americans. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. Give several examples from the film to support Diamond’s theory.
    The people of Papua New Guinea have a lack of easy to grow crops and this makes it more difficult for them to gain a surplus to feed a population and allowing it to grow.

    Guns Germs and Steel II
    1. For thousands of years, people have been cultivating crops. Describe the process used to domesticate crops and create plants that yielded bigger, tastier harvests.
    In order to domesticate crops you would need to farm them placing them in a single area where it is easier for them to pollinate and the selective harvesting and planting of plants allows creates better harvests.

    2. According to Diamond, livestock also plays a significant role in a civilization’s ability to become rich and powerful. How did the domestication of animals help people? Give several examples.
    If you were to domesticate an animal you wouldn’t need to hunt after it wasting time hunting, and never being a certainty that the hunt would be successful, if you don’t need to hunt you can spend your time more productively
    Guns Germs and Steel III
    How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?
    The Fertile Crescent had better crops to grow like wheat and barley which were easier to grow and store for long periods of time, while New Guineans had at their disposable the time consuming and rotting taro root.
    Guns Germs and Steel IV
    How accurate is Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.”(In other words, do you agree with Prof. Diamond) Why or why not?
    I agree with Jared Diamond on that assessment as in both the Fertile Crescent and Papua New Guinea there were farming systems and they were both equally skilled farmers but the people of the Fertile Crescent had better crops to grow and that allowed them to advance faster than the New Guineans.
    Guns Germs and Steel VI
    How did the movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization?
    The Fertile Crescent was the most prosperous of early civilizations but when the geology of the area changed it went downhill and it became desolate, the people couldn’t grow food in the area and they would have retrogress if they had stayed.. The people of the Crescent new this and they moved to better areas where they could advance even farther.
    Guns Germs and Steel IX
    At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry. Describe this weaponry.
    The Spanish were armed with steel swords that could easily cut through human limb, guns and bows which could kill from long distances, and steel armor which couldn’t be easily damaged by the simple weaponry of clubs and bronze used by Incas.

    Guns Germs and Steel X
    What is Jared Diamond’s explanation for why the Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Inca’s were still making tools and weapons from bronze?
    The Spanish had better connection to learning the geography of Afro-Eurasia made it easy for information to cross the continent and for craft of steelmaking to be thought across the continent specifically Spain.

    Guns Germs and Steel XI
    How did the battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors help the small army defeat the Inca army that outnumbered it by the thousands?
    The strategy of shock and awe by the Spanish gave them the advantage with the guns stunning the Incan army and causing them to break ranks while the cavalry entered through the center taking a life with every single slash of the sword.

    Guns Germs and Steel XII
    According to Jared Diamond, what made the Europeans “accidental conquerors”?
    Germs were the greatest weapon of the European conquerors with diseases like small pox being the main killer, small pox preceded the Spanish conquest of the Incas and left the population unable to act effectively while the Spanish conquered.

    Guns Germs and Steel XIII
    According to Jared Diamond, what is the one factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world?
    A factor that made it possible for European conquest was weaponry with steel weaponry in the Americas and the used of the Gatlin gun in Africa destroyed native population with little loss on the European stand.
    Guns Germs and Steel XIV
    Why were the Europeans who settled the South African cape so successful? Describe two reasons.
    The similar geography of South Africa and Europe made it easy for European settlers to adjust to the climate and the use of the machine gun against native forces made it easy for Europeans to take control of the land eradicating the natives and replacing them with European settlers.
    How did disease allow the Europeans to conquer the native populations in the Americas and in the African cape?
    Disease like small pox killed millions of natives in Africa and the Americas the populations of the areas were left unable to act against the European forces and fight effectively against the invading.

    Guns Germs and Steel XV
    While the Europeans who were attempting to overtake/settle the tropical areas of the African continent were responsible for introducing killer germs to the native populations, they also suffered from the effects of the germs native to this part of the world. Describe how these germs worked against the European settlers.
    The germs of the tropics worked against the Europeans as the germs left them unable to settle and farm the land or advance farther into the interior of Africa, the Europeans who settled in the tropics of Africa died soon from malaria never gaining a hold on the land.
    Guns Germs and Steel XVI
    How did the native Africans protected themselves from the germs that caused diseases such as Smallpox and Malaria? Give specific examples cited in the film.
    The people of tropical Africa were already used to the small pox virus as they had experienced it before and had gain antibodies; and Africans also protected themselves from malaria by living in high and dry areas where mosquitos who carried the disease were few.

    Guns Germs and Steel XVII
    What is the number one public health problem in Zambia, and who are the people primarily affected by this?
    The number one issue of Zambia is the disease known as small pox which is effecting mainly the young specifically toddlers.
    How has disease contributed to the poverty in many African countries such as Zambia?
    Disease has worsened the living conditions of the poverty stricken Zambia and is also hurting the work force making it more difficult for people to escape poverty.
    Guns Germs and Steel XVIII
    According to statistics from the film, how has Malaria effected the net growth in Africa over the last 50 years?
    The spread of disease has caused an economic crisis shrinking the Zambian economy and making it almost impossible for them to improve and end poverty with the disease.
    Describe how other tropical countries such as Malaysia and Singapore have developed rich economies despite having many of the same geographical and health problems faced by African nations.
    Singapore and Malaysia are successful because they were able to eradicate malaria from their nations allowing focusing on issues that are to improve themselves and the economy not the immediate problems that they had face with malaria.

  • Tashana Victor

    1) I liked Sukhjinder’s take on how domesticated animals provided for people.She made a great point,that they provided a method of transportation for trade and war.
    2) Ahmed used good details and facts to support his statement.my only issue was that he forgot to mention if it was a 1% increase or decrease in his first sentence. (Part 16, XVII.1st)
    3) Mahy made an excellent point,showing how the Europeans adapted to life in South Africa so successfully.She fully answered the question,giving two strong reasons to support that answer. (#10,Clip 13)
    4) Dorian’s take on Part 17 is interesting because she was able to make the connections between the economy and malaria.The disease affected the population and resources,in turn affecting the economy.
    5) Kamrun’s idea for Part IV number 1 was a little confusing.I was not sure what Kamrun meant by the statement “Wealth and power should be determined on whether they feed the civilians.” The rest of her response was very well written.
    6) Mayra’s take on Clip#2 was interesting because she made an excellent contrast between hunting and gathering she made sure to include that gathering required more labor and ensured a supply of food.
    7) Jintao’s response to Part 1 #2 was very good.In his answer he stated that the New Guineans were not inferior, they just had so little cargo that they were not able to advance as quickly compared to the Europeans.
    8) I liked Mehedi’s take on clip#3.he says that geography has always played a key role in the success of a civilization.That is very true because everything is based on location.If your next to a river you have water and fish, and if your on fertile land, you can grow crops.
    9) Nana’s answer for clip#9 is very accurate.She fully answered the question and included details about use and effectiveness.
    10) I liked Kamrun’s response to XIV#2.She explained how the Europeans were easily able to conquer other regions.She gave good details but could have added that the Europeans got the disease from their domesticated animals.

  • Nabeel Umer

    Clip 1 –
    1.According to Jared Diamond, the 3 elements that separate the world’s “have” and “have not” are guns germs and steel. He says this because these are the 3 things Europeans used to conquers many other peoples’. Jared uses the Spanish Conquistadors as an example because they used heavy weaponry that were far more advanced to conquer natives and the diseases they brought along with them were their own weapons since they were immune to them and other natives were not.
    2. Jared refers to the people of New Guinea as the world’s most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world because they were quick to learn and are able to survive many harsh circumstances in their geographic location that Jared simply would not.
    Clip 2 –
    1. Hunting was a source of food but it was not as stable as gathering so hunting was just one source of nourishment. People instead decided to hunt and gather food because gathering yielded more food and was more stable and combined with hunting provided enough food to survive.
    2. The domestication of animals helped in many ways. Animals were used as a source of transportation. They could carry goods with them or people to other areas much more quickly and efficiently. The animals could be used as a source of food and their furs can be used for clothing or housing.

    Clip 3 –

    1. It supported Diamond’s idea that geography is key to a civilization’s success because the people of the Fertile Crescent stumbled upon wheat and barley which were plentiful, and tough enough to survive the forces of nature which gave them a reliable source of food.

    Clip 4 –
    1. I agree with professor Diamond because whatever resources you are given is what you get to work with. Europeans had many animals such as cows, horse, and ox which were beasts of burden that could help with farming. Cows provided milk and leather as well while farmers in New Guinea only had one domestic animal which was the pig and the only thing the pig could provide was food. The farmers used their own strength instead of a horse’s and the crops New Guineans had to grow were not as nutritious as wheat or barley and spoiled quick as well.

    Clip 9 –
    1. Guns and horses were the “state of the art weaponry”. Horses made them faster and also made them resemble “centaurs” while guns allowed them to kill from longer ranges quickly and more efficiently.

    Clip 10 –
    1. Jared argues that the Europeans had steel while the Incas were still using bronze because they were closer to it than the Incas were. Also the Europeans used trade to further increase the amount of steel which put them ahead of the Incas in terms of equipment and weaponry.

    Clip 11 –
    1. The tactics that allowed the Spanish conquistadors to defeat armies greater than them by the thousands were the use of their weapons. The guns allowed them to take on the bows and other weapons while their steel weaponry was far superior to the Inca bronze weaponry and the diseases brought by the Spanish were also “weaponry” because the Incas were not immune to them.

    Clip 12 –
    1. According to Jared Europeans were “accidental conquerors” because of the 3 basic elements they had: Guns, Germs, and Steel.

    Clip 13 –
    1. One factor that allowed Europeans to conquer vast portions of land throughout the world was geography because of their huge “hand that their dealt with”.

  • Jintao Chen

    [Part 11]The spanish had more advanced weapons and they attacked on sudden which gave their enemies no time to prepare for fighting at all.
    [Part 12]The Europeans are accidental conquer because the natives were not ready to fight at all. They even believed that dancing would scare their enemy away. These people do not understand that these people came to take over their land.
    [Part 13]The Europeans developed rich society and they wanted to furthermore expand their power. They had developed very fully in their own society and were able to move on to the others.
    [Part 14](1)The Europeans were able to grow their own food on the native region and they have enough power to gain success.
    (2)The diseases such as the small pox decreased the native populations, which made them easier to be conquered by the Europeans.
    [Part 15]The animals that they domesticated were dying. The disease may also work on the settlers.

  • Bilal Zafar

    Video: Guns, Germs, and Steel.
    Part 1.
    1. The three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots” are Guns, Germs, and Steel.
    2. Jared Diamond explains this theory by saying it depends on where you are geographical located. If you are in America you will automatically be more advanced than people that are in Africa, even though it is the same time period. As you can see in the video they are fishing in Africa and modern America is very advance with cars and a lot of more technology.
    Part 2.
    1. For thousands of years those people had different processes to domesticate crops and create plants that yield bigger, tastier harvests. They would work together as a family to cut down a tree or go fishing/hunting for food. They would also use all the land they had to make plants and crops.
    2. The domestication of animals helps people by making work very efficient. There is a lot of work and the work can be done faster if the domesticated animal. The more you animals you have the more a person can get and then will be powerful.
    Part 3.
    1. Early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) further support Diamond’s idea because since it is located in such a place that has drought a lot. They have to do a lot more work and geography can make it easy and hard for the success of a civilization. These droughts made the people of the Middle East to become farmers and were changing nature.
    Part4.
    Jared Diamond was not really accurate when he said it depends where you are geographically located because people are able to change Mother Nature by farming in a place that has never been farmed before.
    Part 5.
    1. The Fertile Crescent was able to hold the population that it was at but after the population grew the farming and building limits were to low and they had to move on and leave the Crescent.
    Part 6.
    1.This explains Diamonds theory because if Africa was equipped with the technology that America had then they would be the ones to build helicopters or airplanes. They could not because they had to feed themselves and it was hard to stay alive because of the weather.
    Part 9.
    1. At the time that the Spanish conquistador’s invaded the Inca Empire, they were armed with state of the art weaponry that was hidden. They did not show there armory to their enemies making an surprise attack. This surprise attack would give them a greater advantage. They had really long swords that would not break from a hit.
    Part 10.
    1. Jared Diamonds explanation for why the Spanish had more advance steel swords was since there land was in Europe and Europe was already advance in steel. It influenced them and gave them technology to have advance swords, while the Inca’s were in a different latitude. They still kept in their ways for making tools and weapons.
    Part 11.
    1. The battle tactics used by the Spanish conquistadors was the element of surprise and since the Spanish conquistadors had little amount of people. They had their army hidden and attack when nobody expected it from them. So these tactics made the Inca’s confused and were defeated because of not knowing how to attack back.
    Part 12.
    1. Guns, Germs, and Steel made the Europeans “accidental conquerors” because these things were first found in Europe.
    Part 13.
    1. One factor that allowed Europeans to develop the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world was making railroads, and developing rich society.
    Part 14.
    1. The Europeans were so successful to settle in South Africa was because there were immune to a lot disease that would kill a very large population and The Europeans would survive and then conquer. Also the guns were another reason why settle in the South African cape was successful.
    Part 15.
    1.These germs worked against Europeans because the germs attack only Europeans and not the native people that were already there. The lands in the tropics were very different than of South Africa.
    Part 16.
    1. Native Americans protected themselves from those germs by making antibodies for malaria. Also they lived in high lands were mosquitoes could not live and be protected from them.
    Part 17.
    1. One public health problem in Zambia was the infection that only affected the Europeans and the European people were primarily affected by this.
    2. This disease contributed to poverty because the Africans could not plant in low lands since there was infection that would cause if you lived in lowlands.
    Part 18.
    1. Malaria effected the net growth in Africa over the last 50 years by affected the children at first. 1 out of 7 people would be affecting of Malaria.
    2. Malaysia and Singapore have developed rich economies even though they have similar geographically to Africa because the difference in germs, guns, and steels. The germs that have affected Africa those germs did not affect Malaysia or Singapore.

  • Sage L

    1.) Lethal Micro-organisms, military power, and technological advancements credits the superiority of European countries over the colonies they had con-quested.
    2.) In the film 3 ideas support that geography has influenced the amount of goods expected from different countries. For example, in New Guinea, cargo represented the white man’s power because the contents contained different technology like music recorders, kellogg’s food products, and never-before-seen material. Another example, the notion of capitalism separated western traders or colonists, and native settlers thus, keeping them behind in technological advancements. The film supports mentions that colonies of westerners’ venerated a few items among the cargo so, the westerners exploited that demand to obtain power through cargo.
    3.) Domesticated plants are selected by the product they produce and the nutrition they offer. In the middle east, barely and wheat were high in both amount and nutrition making cultivation easy for a large population. In New Guinea, the society has choose a “Sago” tree for nutrition because the other trees in that tropical region carry less nutrition than the Sago. The gathers chop the sago tree and collect a pulp that would soon be turned into a dough. Gathering was the origin of farming.
    4.) Advanced technology, large population, and well-organized work force are common to general powerful and rich civilizations. Domestication of animals lead to a stable amount of nutrition produced by live stock and a longer lasting society. For example, goat produced milk which is tastier and has more calories than water. Herding provided a source of meat, all this allowed more energy and a large population through domesticated animals.
    5.) Civilizations in the Fertile Crescent had demonstrated the efficiency of living in a farming society. During a time period described as the second ice age, early civilizations adapted to the notion of farming and domesticating plants that would benefit their living conditions. This is similar to gene splicing; where scientists select desirable genes and cultivate them in a needed place.
    6.) Jared Diamond’s quote on geographical luck being the reason for wealth, and strength isn’t too accurate. Wealth, strength, and power is a result from human interactions. Hundreds of examples are seen. A scientist described the relationship between domesticated animals and humans as mutual, humans in one region can also have a mutual relationship with people in a different region. Jared Diamond compared the domestic animals in New Guinea, specifically the pig which was an imported animal from Asai, to the animals in Europe which originated from other places in the world. Geographic luck or bad luck could be altered with interactions with other societies in different regions. America cultivates corn and wheat, and domesticates pigs and cows but these things originated from somewhere else and implemented there like farmers that wild plants and turned them into crops many years ago.
    7.) Jared Diamond empathizes that the time that civilizations in Eurasia had, with surplus food and leisure, lead to global inequality. The Fertile Crescent was the origin of this practice but lack of resources in that one area lead to an expansion into eastern Europe, North Africa, and east Asia because these places had similar temperature and day lengths as the Fertile Crescent.
    8.) The Spanish missionaries carried a fashionable weapon called riper. A riper was a steel sword known for medieval ancestry-greed and combat.
    9.) Jared Diamond explains that geography manipulated the share of resources which relates to why Spanish conquistadors had plenty of steel weaponry and equipment while the Inca’s had bronze which is primitive.
    10.) The Spanish conquistadors slaughtered many Inca soldiers in a single battle. The spanish successfully led an ambush on the unarmed Inca soldiers. Horses, swords, and guns scared them.
    11.) Jared Diamond concludes that Europeans were “accidental conquerors” because they had guns, germs, and steel. Especially with germs which would always attack local organisms’ immune system. Spanish and europeans had a special immunity to some diseases because of their relationship with domesticated animals but the Inca’s had only one domesticated animal unlike Eurasia.
    12.) Farming systems in Europe lead to unequal differences globally between Europeans and other countries. They were able to establish all the benefits of a specialized society because of abundant amount of food. Strong immune system can be credited to the European’s long mastery of animal domestication.
    13.) The Europeans were successful in South Africa because it was equidistant from the equator as their home. This gave Europeans an advantage and knowledge on crops they could grow and climate. Another advantage was the use of the flint rock rifle because it was designed to kill things from a long distance.
    14.) Smallpox is one of the many diseases brought by Europeans that devastated African populations. Reducing their population and chances of survive because the Africans were not immune to these fatal infections.
    15.) As Europeans began to expand in South Africa, there was a point were they lost their great advantages. Geography opposed Europeans in the Tropic of Capricorn because climate and the environment was different in this section near the equator. Farming was almost impossible and lack of nutrition led to feeble and weaker Europeans.
    16.) Two diseases that harassed European settlers in Africa was smallpox and malaria. African populations naturally obtained antibodies against malaria due to exposure with domesticated oxen. Immunity to malaria was available through vaccination and in some cases, location influenced immunity. Mosquitoes containing malaria lived in moist and humid areas so, Africans naturally settled in dryer and mountain high areas to obtain generally immunity through isolation.
    17.) Fatal and devastating viruses like aids and malaria harm the population of Zambia. Malaria has been mainly affected children under the age of five, which again endangers possible survival.
    18.) Lack of medicine and sources against malaria marks Zambia in a state of poverty.
    19.) Malaria has been reducing the population of Zambia at least by 1% every year. This disease is common among babies and sometimes overbears 7 babies per day depending on the season. The germs known as malaria is very scary in the sense that it is able to adapt like humans and become more fatal thus, more complex to preclude.
    20.) Nations like Singapore and Malaysia understood the burden and roots of malaria and independently suppressed its impact by mastering the environment. Working together to pinpoint areas high in with the disease and fumigate those places.

  • Stephanie Johnson

    1. The three major elements that separate the worlds “haves” from the “have nots” are
    Guns – military power
    Germs – Unfamiliar illnesses
    Steel – Advanced technology
    2. I appreciate the way Nana analyzed little of what the video explained about Diamonds theory and Kamrun’s example of having more resources to support Nana’s claim. To add to it, the geography of the civilization also determined the type of food they ate and nutrition they were getting and also the higher the population. The new Guineans didn’t have much protein and therefore weren’t great in population and the people ultimately weaker compared to their Middle Eastern counterparts.
    3. Domestication of crops explained by Diamond is the changing of crops by human interference. It required a well-organized work force of workers and an abundance of beneficial crops. Only the biggest, tastiest and most nutritious crops were picked; similarly to natural selection. I like Sukhjinder’s answer of the question because she also mentions being able to make profit from the crops being domesticated.
    4. Livestock plays an important role in a civilization’s ability to grow. The domestication of animals gave people a dependable food supply, protein rich milk, clothes, dung for fertilizer which was used to grow better crops.
    5. The movement of early civilities supports the idea that geography played a key role in the success of a civilization. The movement of the civilizations in the Fertile Crescent from a drought area to an area near a water source was important in the domestication of crops and animals which ultimately was there reason for success. Moving also allowed the civilizations to spread their ideas and success in domestication. Mehdehi’s answer to the question didn’t provide a clear understanding of what impact moving had on the civilizations in the fertile crescent, an example of an impact on the people and there population would’ve more useful in better analyzing how moving to different geographical locations played a key role in the success of a civilization.
    6. I agree with Prof. Diamond that a civilizations ability to grow is determined by the raw materials at their disposal. Civilizations that don’t have great resources don’t have great products because there isn’t much to work with. Europe and Asia had different types of domesticated animals, protein rich crops and products that New Guineans didn’t have and because of this Europe and Asia’s population was able to grow and thrive more as well as learn skills and develop new technologies. Kamrun’s answer is relevant because its written simply yet well enough that you understand his point and analysis on a civilizations wealth and the materials at their disposal
    7. Spanish conquistadors were armed with high quality swords made from steel which was used to stab and slice. It was very effective and had to be both pliable yet durable. The swords showed the Spanish aspiration for greed. Mahy’s answer is very important because it shows how effective the swords were in the conquering of the Incas and also exemplifies other state of the art weaponry that the Spanish used to conquer
    8. Spanish had advanced to steel swords while Incas were still making weapons from bronze because the skill of manipulating steel was easily passed from the Middle East to Europe and then perfected. I like Ahmed explanation of how latitude and longitude influenced how advanced a civilization was and also had climate made a difference too.
    9. The Spanish used the element of surprise as well as divide and conquer to defeat the large Inca population. These battle tactics worked because they instilled fear in the Incas. Mayra’s answer to the question discuss that the Spanish were at an advantage because they had guns and steel. She also goes the say that some of these tactics included the use of horses and charging into the enemy.
    10. Germs made Europeans accidental conquers. They weren’t used consciously like the element of surprise but they were effective. Some of the world’s deadliest diseases came from Europe because the people had lots of contact from their domestic animals and over time gains immunity, the conquered peoples however didn’t have the resistance because they had never come in contact with these diseases. Once again, because of location, they had first acquired guns, germs, and steel. Nana in her answer goes to list some of the areas were Europeans were most successful in their conquest
    11. Europeans developed the forces necessary to conquer vast portions of the world because of their geographical location which allowed them to develop guns, germs and steel. In her answer Nana goes to explain how the geography of Europe and the domestication of plants and animals were necessary in their success.
    12. The Europeans who settled the South African cape were so successful because the geography was just like that of Europe so they could manipulate the land to their liking. Guns were also used to hunt and conquer.
    13. Disease allowed the Europeans to conquer native populations because Europeans used germs unconsciously as natural killers – invisible and silent but deadly.
    14. Germs native to the Africans worked against the European settlers because they didn’t have the immunity to them. Their animals began to die and they followed shortly after.
    15. Native Africans protected themselves from germs that caused diseases such as small pox and malaria because they developed a method of vaccination as well as antibodies against them. They also avoided infection by staying in dry areas away from parasites and living in small communities limiting the spread of infection.
    16. The number one public health problem in Zambia is Malaria and children are primarily affected by this disease.
    17. Diseases have contributed to the poverty in many African countries by hardening the living conditions and preventing progression because of constants worry and heavy infant death rates. I like Dorian’s answer because she goes to say that the disease affects the population and its resources which in turn affect the economy.
    18. Malaria has decreased the net growth in Africa by 1% each year making it a 50% decrease over the last 50 years. I like Ahmed answer because he goes to explain that the decrease is due to ineffective immunity because the disease has mutated and the people no longer have the same immunity. They also now live in large communities increasing the spread of infection
    19. Other tropical countries such as Malaysia and Singapore have developed rich economies despite having many of the same geographical and health problems faced by African nation by understanding how geography and history affected them and changing their economies and way of life.

  • Mehedi Mondal

    1) I agree with everyone’s response to number 1, three major elements are Guns, Germs and Steel.
    2) Mahy’s response to 2 was correct in my POV. People had to adapt to survive and finding new ways to get food was one of these adaptations.
    3) Nana’s response to 9 was wonderful. Inca’s did not have state of the art material, which made them the underdogs in the fight against the Europeans. You cannot possibly win a close quarter battle when your opponent has a firearm, unless you’re Jack Bauer or Superman.
    4) Nana’s response to Germs being the best weapon the Europeans had is also true in my opinion. You cannot fight off a disease, you cannot shoot it or kill it, which means you cannot heal from it, leaving you to die. Pretty soon, you will transmit this to others wiping out everyone you were in contact with.
    5) Mahy’s answer to 8, I disagree with that, didn’t they come to America looking for spices?
    6) Everyone’s answer to number 11 is good as well, Europeans didn’t have try as hard to win.
    7) Jintao’s part 15 answer, we see this when people contracted Mad Cow Disease.
    8) Jintao’s answer to 12 is disagreeable, I would not say they werent ready to fight at all, because they could have been skilled in close quarter combat.
    9) Mayr’a answer to clip 12, Guns Germs and Steel helped them conquer everything.
    10) Sukjender makes a good point in 15, it took them years to develop the antibodies.

  • Eduardo Zuniga

    Guns Germs and Steel I
    1. According to Jared Diamond guns, germs, and steel are the three major elements that separate the world’s “haves” from the “have nots”.
    2. According to Jared Diamond geographic luck is the reason why people of New Guinea have much less than modern America. For example, in the Middle East the amount of resources the people had was large then what people of New Guinea had, especially in terms of food. Europeans had better plants to harvest with more calories and protein then plants found in New Guinea. With more and better food the Europeans were able to live more easily and allow for a large population.

    Guns Germs and Steel II
    1. In order to feed a bigger population, people had to find new techniques that would guarantee them a larger supply of food that had enough nutrients to support them, and would last longer without spoiling. When Jared Diamond tries out hunting, he saw that although gathering is harder work and the food collected doesn’t last long, it is still used by people just because it can feed a greater amount of people, and it is guaranteed. Hunting on the other hand takes a lot of education on hundreds of different animals, and isn’t always successful.
    2. The domestication of animals helped people because it provided them with food supply. They bred animals so they could eat their meat. This was more efficient them hunting for instead of having to look for their food, they were able to just grow it and then kill and eat it whenever they wonted. This helped the people move from being hunter and gatherers to settling down in one place and forming villages and small cities.

    Gun Germs and Steel III
    1. Movement of the early civilizations of the Fertile Crescent further supported Diamond’s idea that geography plays a key role in the success of a civilization being such a dry, unstable environment. The people that had began to domesticate and harvest their own crops, saw that the land began to become dry, and eventually, it could no longer support the people living their because crops wouldn’t grow. As a result, people had to move to places where water was in abundance and begin to harvest again. This supports Diamond’s idea of geography played a role in the success of civilizations because the movement of people was what kept them alive, and help them realize that they needed water if they were going to grow crops.

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